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by : / 2020-01-24 21:44:26




Dr. Kwame Nkrumah was out of the country and the coup d'etat occurred, clearly this was a planned to overthrow the president.

Projecting Major general Kwasi Kotoka  name at the international airport was a TOTAL DISASTER because we all know if major general Kwasi Kotoka had the chance he could have killed Dr Kwame Nkrumah but because Nkrumah was out of the country, he was safe.

There was another group known as "GUITAR BOYS" which was led by Lt. Moses Yeboah. They also used coup d'etat against Kotoka and they defeated Kotoka which he was killed after a long military fight by Lt. Moses. 

Coup d'etat involves  violence, meaning if Kotoko and his military men had the chance they could have killed Dr. Kwame Nkrumah. 

Assuming after the independence of Ghana, if the British government decided that they going to use coup d'etat to take the independence back from Ghanaians, do you think that will be fair to Ghanaians? 

So,major general Emmanuel Kwasi Kotoka made one of the most poorest decision ever in the history of Ghana, to use violence as a remedy.

On February 24, 1966, the first President of Ghana, Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, was removed from office through a joint military and police coup. The overthrow of the Convention People’s Party (CPP) government 51years ago is regrettable, to say the least.

In 1956, the CPP won the Legislative Election leading to independence and Kwame Nkrumah became the first Prime Minister of Ghana. He was later elected President of the first Republic in 1960.

According to declassified documents from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the United States, France and Britain had been trying to truncate Nkrumah’s regime since 1964.

A monument of Kwame Nkrumah was pulled down outside the Parliament House


President Nkrumah was seen as an ally of erstwhile Soviet Union and the Eastern Europe. But the pan-African leader declared his position in one of his famous statements, “We neither face East nor West; we face forward”.

At the invitation of President Ho Chi Minh, Dr. Nkrumah left Ghana for Hanoi on February 21, 1966, to resolve the Vietnam War. Since the country had no vice president, Ghana was left in the control of a three-man Presidential Commission.

Consequently, the CIA-backed coup in Ghana was carried out at the dawn of February 24, 1966, while Nkrumah was still on a peace mission in Southeast Asia. And that became the end of Nkrumah’s political career in Ghana.

Large crowds gathered to celebrate the overthrow of Nkrumah in 1966


The masterminds of the 1966 revolution were Col. E.K. Kotoka, Major A.A. Afrifa, and Mr. J.W.K. Harley, the then Inspector-General of Police. The bloody coup d’état that toppled the first Republican Constitution of Ghana was codenamed ‘Operation Cold Chop’.

The rationale behind the coup

In the early morning hours of February 24, 1966, Col. Kotoka of the 2nd Infantry Brigade is quoted to have announced on Radio Ghana that, “Kwame Nkrumah is overthrown, and the myth surrounding him is broken”.

One may ask the question, what inspired the security officers to overthrow Osagyefo Dr. Nkrumah? And on what basis can the coup be said to be justified?

Dr. Kwame Nkrumah exchanging pleasantries with Col E.K. Kotoka at a military function


The famous coup-makers cited Nkrumah’s Preventive Detection Act (PDA), mismanagement, dictatorial practices, abuse of human rights, oppression and the deteriorating economy of Ghana as the principal reasons for the uprising.

His strengths & weaknessesJust to play the devil’s advocate. How did the revolution contribute towards national development? Did the country’s fortunes improve in any way after Nkrumah’s administration was deposed? Obviously, your guess is as good as mine.

Dr. Kwame Nkrumah was not without flaws. And like every human, he had his strengths, weaknesses, success, and failure or downfall. I cannot be mistaken to allude the above as the underlying factors that resulted in his overthrow one way or the other.

How Nkrumah received the news of the coup while in Hanoi


For instance, the one-party state Nkrumah created in the CPP, the declaration of ‘Presidency for Life’ by Osagyefo in 1964, and the imprisonment of opposition members without trial were quite unfortunate.

But some political analysts and historians have justified the PDA which was passed into law in 1958. The Act empowered President Nkrumah to imprison his opponents without trial up to 5years, and later extended to10years.

The PDA has been described as a necessary evil because of the series of bomb attacks and assassination attempts on Osagyefo’s life. There were at least seven attempts to assassinate Dr. Nkrumah during his presidency.

Many Ghanaians took to the street and jubilated over the saddened revolution which forced Dr. Nkrumah into political asylum. Subsequently, the long-term goals, policies and vision of Nkrumah became a mirage.

Today, there is a paradigm shift in Ghana’s history. Kwame Nkrumah, who was once vilified by his own people, is now recognised for his exemplary leadership in Ghana and Africa as a whole.

Osagyefo was a selfless leader who did not pursue his parochial interest to the detriment of his country. His drive for the total liberation and unity of Africa also affected his administration in diverse ways.

Nkrumah’s achievements

he leader of the 1966 coup, Col E.K. Kotoka (left) and Maj. A.A. Afrifa


The success story of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah distinguished him among his contemporaries in Africa. His ideology for pan-Africanism, Africa liberation and self-governance earned him an enviable reputation worldwide.

It therefore came as no surprise when Nkrumah was pronounced Africa’s greatest son (Man of the Millennium) in the year 2000. His social policies and style of leadership were impeccable.

As an international icon of freedom in Africa, Kwame Nkrumah was the first leader in sub-Saharan Africa to gain independence for his country from the British colony in 1957.

Dr. Nkrumah was, undoubtedly, one of the finest presidents Ghana and even Africa has ever had. He is fondly remembered for the better roads, schools, hospitals, factories, the Akosombo Dam and the Tema Harbour, just to name a few.

After the overthrow of the CPP administration, Nkrumah sought political exile in Conakry with his Guinean counterpart, President Ahmed Sekou Toure. He was appointed Co-President of Guinea until death laid its icy hands on him in 1972. He died at the age of 63.

There is no denying that successive governments have, over the years, abandoned most of the projects and policies of Osagyefo based on political grounds. A poor maintenance culture is the bane of this country.

As we mark 60years of independence, it is important that fellow Ghanaians remain united and draw inspiration from the achievements, ideology, and vision of Kwame Nkrumah and our founding fathers for the purpose of nation building, regardless of our political affiliation.

“The forces that unite us are intrinsic and greater than the superimposed influences that keep us apart”, Kwame Nkrumah.


Tackie Tawiah I, the Accra king who defied British order to steal the Golden Stool

The GaDangme of Ghana revere their ancestor-king Abiasuma King Tackie Tawiah I immensely and for good cause.

King Tawiah l was the overlord of the Ga people of Ghana, who reigned during the “Golden years” of Accra (1862-1902) and still acclaimed as the most illustrious, progressive and enterprising of all the Ga kings (Ayittey, 2006).

He was described by Dr. A. Boi Quartey-Papafio, “as a fulcrum-figure in the modern history of the Ga-Dangme” and a stalwart whose reign saw the establishment of Accra as the capital of Ghana in 1877.

His era saw countless skilled young artisans, including Tetteh Quarshie who later brought viable Cocoa into the Gold Coast after the Dutch and the Swiss. His reign also witnessed the translation of the Bible into Ga in 1865.

Historian and researcher at the University of Ghana, Kweku Darko Ankrah submits he was not only development-oriented, but also a leader who identified himself with his people, adding while he fought relentlessly to protect and uphold Ga-Dangme customs and traditions, he was also enlightened and progressive enough to abolish obnoxious customs.

The King was also a warrior and was involved in the Anlo Wars of 1860. For his long reign he gained the title “Abiasuma”, which means the “King Still Reigns.”

King Tackie Tawiah I was born in 1817 into the Ga royal family of Teiko Tsuru We at Kinka. He was named Nii Quarshie Tawiah. His father was Nii Teiko Doku, son of Ga Mantse and prosperous Accra trader, King Teiko Tsuru (1782-1787), and his mother was Naa Ashong Danso from Asere.

She was a woman of great respect and connections, which greatly enhanced her son’s reign. On his paternal side, King Tawiah I traced his royal lineage proudly to King Ayikushi, the Founder and the first Priest-King (Wulomo-Mantse) of the Gam?i (Ga people). This means that King Tawiah I was from both Teiko Tsuru We and Abola Tunma We. In Ga language “We” means “family.”

King Tackie Tawiah I via tinkongbee.wordpress.com

After securing his basic education at the Wesley Methodist School, he began life as a businessman and his knack in the Gold Coast trade and commercial terrain made him a Merchant Prince travelling to Tamale, Akropong and Kumasi to trade and also to Togo, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and Fernando Po (now Equatorial Guinea) to transact business and made friends with people from the Caribbean and South America, especially Brazil.

He later invited some of his diaspora friends to come and settle in Accra to participate in the town’s progressive transformation through business. Alasha Nelson, an Afro-Brazilian or what the Ga people called Tabom people was the most distinguished of this change agent. Alasha (Azumah) Nelson later became one of the pillars and the head of sizeable Brazilian community in Accra .

The people of Accra mourning their deceased King (Mantse), Abiasuma Nii Tackie Tawiah I in Accra in 1903. Photo taken by F. R. C. Lutterodt in Accra, Gold Coast (Ghana) and currently an archival possession of University of Southern California Libraries.

On December 12 1862, Nii Quarshie Tawiah ascended the Ga throne as the 20th King (Mantse) of Accra after succeeding Nii Yaote who reigned from 1859 to 1862.

Within two years of his ascension as the Ga Mantse, King Tackie Tawiah’s reign witnessed a riot between James Town and the Usher Fort in 1864. This was the time that British ruled Accra ruthlessly, but he led his people to resist the British attempt at introducing Ordinance for the town, exacting taxes and land acquisition. When the three earthquakes hit Accra during the period, he mobilized the Ga people to stand its ravages and moved on with their lives. He also got involved in the Anlo Wars (1855-1866), when the people of Accra joined forces with the Akwapim to fight the Anlo.

He fought in the Tordzie or Adidome wars. In 1869, he led his Ga warriors to march with the combined forces of the British, Ada, Akyem and Akwapim against the Anlos and their Asante allies in the Vovo, Duffor and Clover Wars.

The king was considered a great military tactician assisted by his two powerful warriors: Asafoatse Oman and Asafoatse Ayi Kodwo Mankattah. The king fought alongside the Governor of Usher, who had the Gold Coast Constabulary in the June 1869 war at Asutuare.

When the Asantes made several incursions to Ada to occupy it with the sole purpose of capturing the Songhor Lagoon to mine salt with the support of their formidable Anlo allies, and war broke out between the Ada people and the Asantes, King Tawiah offered assistance to the Ada people.

As the British colonialists continued to exhibit their shameless antics after securing the southern Gold Coast as their Colony, the King and his people remained unimpressed with their attitude. On March 19, 1877, the British colonialists transferred their administrative capital from Cape Coast to Accra. Ayittey (2006) in line with other historians contend that three most important factors for the move were the phenomenal commercial development of Accra, its superior sanitation, and relative stability and security that King Tackie Tawiah I had brought to Accra.

He was an independent thinker who stood on his grounds against threats. When the British made presentations to him to assist them alongside King Asafu-Adjaye of Juaben to invade Asante to claim the Golden Stool he declined. Consequently, Governor Hodgson described him as an “uncooperative King” As a result he was exiled to Elmina from November 1880 to 10 March 1883 due to what the British described as the King’s “persistent disobedience of the order of the British government.”

After receiving his pardon in 1883, he was taken to Ga Mashie (Accra Central) in a great procession to continue his reign and led his people in their struggles against the colonial regime.

King Tawiah I was always ready to follow the advice of his cabinet. Nor could he be influenced by money; his probity was beyond question (Ayittey, 2006). He offered lands to the first Hausa community in Accra and even endorsed Braimah as the leader of the Mohammedan community.

Having reigned for 40 years, Tawiah l died in 1902 and was buried in Accra. He was the second-longest King after Nii Tetteh Ahinakwa who reigned from 1740 to 1782.

On September 23, 2002, a giant effigy of him was unveiled at the Accra central business district near the Makola Shopping Mall in honour of his great achievements. Tawiah I was first honoured in 1997 when the Kanda Flyover in Accra was named after him. In the same year, the Ga-Dangmes instituted King Tackie Tawiah I Memorial Lectures. He was the second Ghanaian King to be featured on a Ghana stamp after Asantehene.

Source: Ojekoo radio



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